The History and Development of Cybernetics The History and Development of Cybernetics




НазваниеThe History and Development of Cybernetics The History and Development of Cybernetics
г. в сравнении с 2009-2010 гг.<> <><><>Количество участников ЕГ
Дата03.12.2012
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The History and Development of Cybernetics


The History and Development of Cybernetics

  • Представлен университетом им. Джорджа Вашингтона (The George Washington University)

  • совместно с Американским обществом кибернетики (The American Society for Cybernetics)



History of Cybernetics

  • Много лет назад…



Relative Complication



Objects & Processes



Knowledge Mastery





Da Vinci, cont. – Sculpture



Da Vinci, cont. – Anatomy



Da Vinci, cont. – Architecture



Da Vinci, cont. – Weapons Engineering



Da Vinci, cont. – Aeronautical Engineering



Da Vinci, cont. – Aeronautical Engineering, cont.



Systems Complexity



Systems Complexity, cont.



Systems Complexity, cont.



Systems Complexity, cont.



Systems Complexity, cont.



Systems Complexity, cont.



Systems Complexity, cont.



Technology Advances



Technology Advances, cont.



Technology Advances, cont.



Keeping up with Developments



How to Live and Work in a Technically Advanced Society?



Underlying Principles



Cybernetics = Regulation of Systems



Cybernetics – an Interdisciplinary Science



What Cybernetics Looks at



Derivation of Cybernetics



Norbet Weiner



Wiener – Radar



Weiner – Radar, cont.



Wiener – Radar and Human Factor Imitation





Feedback – Thermostat



Thermostat Feedback Example



Thermostat Feedback Example, cont.



Thermostat Feedback Example, cont.



Thermostat Feedback Example, cont.





Human Body – Feedback Leading to System Regulation



Feedback – Corrective Action



Feedback – Hunger Example



Human Body and Cybernetics Studies



Homeostat





Grey Walter – Self Regulating Man and Animals



Grey Walter – Mechanical Tortoises



Grey Walter and Family



The Anatomy of Elsie



Simulating a Human’s Function



Simulating a Human’s Function



Not What Is, but What Does it Do?



Simulating Human Functions



Not Objects, but Processes



Designs to Help with Human Tasks



Automata



Macy Foundation Meetings



Professionals Speak Different Languages



Margaret Mead Breaks A Tooth



Meetings Calm with Common Experiences



Laying the Groundwork for Cybernetics



Prominent Early Cyberneticians



Neurophysiology, Mathematics, and Philosophy



The Human Nervous System



Human Nervous System and Mathematical Equations



Cold = Hot



Neurophysiology, Mathematics and Philosophy



Plants



Animals



Minerals



Abstract Ideas, Thoughts, and Concepts



Epistemology = Study of Knowledge



Knowledge – Formed in the Brain



The Mind – The Meeting Place Between the Brain and an Idea



Experimental Epistemology



Cybernetics = Regulation of Systems



Human Brain – The Most Remarkable Regulator of All



Mind – Regulates Itself



Other Cybernetic Concepts



Law of Requisite Variety



Thermostat Example, Revisited



Furnace = Simplicity



Furnace + Air Conditioner = Complexity



Humans – Most Complex Nervous System



Starfish System



Sea Cucumber System



More Complex the Animal, the More complex the Brain



Social Systems



Capability to Regulate



Regulation – Increase Complexity of Regulator and System being Regulated



Self Organizing Systems



Waiting in Line



The Line – A Self-Organizing System



Oil and Vinegar – a Self-Organizing System



Oil and Vinegar - Equilibrium



Self Organization Leads to a General Design Rule



Self Organization Leads to a General Design Rule



Educating Children



Educating Children, cont.



Regulation of Business by Government



Regulation of Business by Government, cont.



Regulation of Business by Government, cont.



Regulation of Business by Government, cont.



Regulation of Business by Government, cont.





Cybernetics – how Knowledge itself is Generated



A Firmer Foundation for Regulating Larger Systems



Firmer Foundation for Regulating the Whole World



Role of the Observer



Heinz Von Foerster



Humberto Maturana



Gordon Pask



Stafford Beer



Second Order Cybernetics



Dealing with Autonomous Systems





Separating Man from the System



Separating Man from the System, cont.



Margaret Mead



Mead – Separating Man from the System



Mead – Separating Man from the System, cont.



Mead – Separating Man from the System, cont.



News Reporters – Affected by Background and Experience



Wise to Have Several People Study Complex Systems



Early Days – Cybernetics = Systems Seeking Pre-Defined Goals



Now – How Purposes are Constructed



Pursuing Goals and Purposes



Pursuing Goals and Purposes, cont.



Pursing Goals and Purposes, cont.



Cybernetics – 1st Noted for Feedback



Human Body – Rich Example of Feedback



Studying the Human Body – Walking, Thinking, etc.



Cybernetics – Studies Self-Organizing Properties



Cybernetics – Moved from Primary Concern with Machines



Cybernetics includes Large Social Systems



Da Vinci – Can we Master all Fields and Existing Knowledge?



Complexity is Observer-Dependent



Complexity is in the Eye of the Beholder





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