Scramble for Africa 1870-1914 Scramble for Africa




НазваниеScramble for Africa 1870-1914 Scramble for Africa
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Scramble for Africa

1870-1914

Scramble for Africa

  • European race to carve up Africa into their colonies

  • Made possible by the use of the steamboat and quinine



North Africa

  • Took over Algeria in 1831 and took over Tunisia in 1881

  • Italy took Libya in1911





Egypt

  • After Napoleon’s defeat in Egypt, British restored power in 1805 to Muhammad Ali

  • He set about modernizing Egypt

  • Modernized army, set up public education, and created industrial areas

  • In 1854, Ferdinand de Lesseps (French) built the Suez canal

  • Left Egypt in debt and had to rely on foreign assistance



Brits establish a protectorate

  • Rebels revolted in Egypt against foreign influence and in 1881, the British intervened

  • The British wanted to establish a protectorate to insure their investments



Khartoum and Gordon’s head

  • A revolt in the Sudan led by the Mahdi brought much of it under his control

  • British General Gordon led a military force to Khartoum to restore Egyptian authority, but ended up becoming besieged

  • Mahdi’s troops destroyed Gordon and his forces. They also cut off Gordon’s head - 1885





The Mahdi’s Tomb

  • Humiliated by the death of Gordon and his army, the British vow revenge

  • General Kitchener used a new railway to by pass lower cataracts and reach Omdurman.

  • On Sept. 2. 1898, the Battle of Omdurman occurs. Easy British victory. 10,000 of the Mahdi’s army are killed and the Brits lose only 47 men

  • Kitchener and Get revenge but are sent to Fashoda





Fashoda Incident -1898

  • The British want an uninterrupted line of British territory in Africa from “Cairo to Cape Town”

  • The French want an uninterrupted line from Dakar to the Horn of Africa

  • The two crossing points of these lines are roughly around the island of Fashoda in the Nile

  • The French under Marchand reach the fort followed closely by Kitchener. The mood is tense and is the closest the powers came to war over the Scramble

  • The French leave because they knew they could not win a war against the British navy





West Africa

  • France, Germany, and Great Britain compete for territory

  • In 1884, the Brits declare Nigeria a protect because they are worried about French encroachment on the Niger River. At the same time the Germans gobble up Cameroon



French and British recognition of territory in W. Africa - 1890

  • France – Madagascar, western Sudan, Morocco, Senegal, Guinea, Gabon, the French Congo





German SW Africa

  • Germans take it in 1884 before other European countries claimed it.

  • Felt colonies lead to national prestige



East Africa

  • Island of Zanzibar was a massive Arab slave market and was a reason for the rise of western interest. Brits take it over and end slave trade







Brits and Germans

  • Agree to partition mainland between them in East Africa in 1886 will become Tanzania

  • Germany received German East Africa

  • British get the area called British East Africa known as Uganda and Kenya





Italians and East Africa

  • Italy tries to invade Ethiopia from Eritrea and our soundly defeated by Emperor Menelik at the Battle of Adowa.

  • In exchange for Italian POWs, the Italians recognize Ethiopian independence

  • Italy already had obtained Somalia in the 1880s









South Africa

  • Boers – Dutch speaking inhabitants of South Africa were forced to migrate East by the British after the Napoleonic Wars

  • Set up colonies of Transvaal, Orange Free State and Natal

  • In 1842, the British take over Natal and in 1877 the Brits annex Transvaal



Battle of Isandlwana-1879

  • Brits invade Zulu land under pretense that the Zulus were committing atrocities on to European farmers

  • 1300 British troops are attacked by 20,000 Zulus armed with spears

  • It was an massive British defeat





Results

  • British end up sending in a larger invasion force and ultimately defeat the Zulus and take over Zululand

  • The Zulu chief is not able to negotiate a peace

  • Boer nationalism begins to grow





Transvaal Independence - 1880

  • Boers declare independence

  • Brits go on in to crush Boers and are defeated at the Battle of Majuba Hill

  • Transvaal obtains its independence







Cecil Rhodes

  • Rhodes expands British territory North, outflanking the Boers territory in 1890

  • He has commercial interest at stake, especially diamonds and gold – founder of DeBeers diamonds

  • Brits also want to prevent the Portuguese from joining Mozambique and Angola





The Congo

  • Both the French and Belgians vie for territory by moving up the Congo river

  • The French explorer is Brazza and the Belgian explorer is Stanley

  • French up claiming territory north of the Congo River and the Belgians claim territory to the south of the river

  • Rest of story can be found in the Ghost of Leopold



The explorers

Brazza



Conference of Berlin - 1885

  • - meeting of European nations to divide up Africa

  • - 14 nations total

  • - 1884-1885 in city of Berlin

  • - said any European country can claim land in Africa by notifying other nations in Europe

  • - they divided the continent without thought for African cultures

  • - Africa provided mineral resources & plantation style farming



Resistance

  • The Boers in South Africa

  • Hereros rebellion – SW Africa , German territory

  • Maji, Maji rebellion – East Africa, German territory



Herero rebellion - 1904

  • Hereros were semi-nomadic with heavy reliance on cattle

  • Rinderpest virtually wiped out all the cattle and malaria hit

  • More and more Germans arrived

  • Hereros revolted and attacked cities and besieged German garrisons

  • German General Trotha overreacted to the threat. He cornered the Herero at Waterberg but left a route of escape into the desert



Herero rebellion - 1904

  • Hereros fled, around 16,000 men, women, and children.

  • Because of these atrocities, the Nama revolted

  • The Nama put down their arms in 1905

  • Half the Nama and 75% of the Herero would be killed outright or die in labor camps









“Maji, Maji” – Water, Water - 1905

  • In German held territory of East Africa, there are revolts of several tribes against the German rule

  • Tribal leaders promised medicine “Maji” which would protect them against German bullets

  • Spread south and west – very difficult for tribes to unite into one large force

  • Recognized very quickly that “Maji” did not work and brought about an “every tribe for itself” mentality



“Maji, Maji”

  • Governor von Gotzen issued a “famine strategy” to destroy the fields of the tribes

  • This led to sever famine that persisted long after the rebellion was over in July 1906

  • Estimated 250,000 to 350,000 Africans died



Boer War, 1899-1902

Milner – Governor of Cape Colony















Colonialism in Africa

  • Primarily used indirect rule in Africa, it was the least expensive method

  • European officials would maintain central administration, but local authority was assigned to local chiefs

  • Local authorities were expected to maintain control and collect taxes



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